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Back2Genesis is well aware of our critics. Unfortunately, there is not enough time in the day to respond to them all. So, we decided to make an example out of this particular criticism to show our readers just how scientifically rigorous the biblical creation model really is. In this semi-technical article, we address an argument that has been circulating around YouTube by anti-creationists who do their best to debunk the "mutational load paradox". Despite, the latest claims, genetic entropy remains a lethal blow to the modern theory of evolution. The systematic accumulation of very slightly deleterious (harmful) mutations is relentless and irreversible. Sadly, it is a result of The Fall described in Genesis chapter 3—Article by Chris Rupe and Donny Budinsky

Students are taught as if it were an unquestionable fact of science that life originated spontaneously from non-living chemicals. The implications are clear: God is irrelevant because life can now be explained apart from a Creator. However, leading origin-of-life scientists freely confess, after many decades of research, that life is far too complex to have formed spontaneously by chance. The missing ingredients are not time, chance, and the right chemistry—it's intelligence!  —Article by Chris Rupe and Dr. John Sanford

Most introductory level biology textbooks claim we evolved from fish, and they routinely present the fossil species known as Tiktaalik as conclusive proof of this. Museum and textbook illustrations show a creature emerging out of the water, crawling on enlarged front fins. This is misleading and not what the actual fossil evidence shows. Tiktaalik is simply a bottom-dwelling fish and closely resembles modern representations. —Article by Chris Rupe and Dr. John Sanford

Did land mammals evolve into whales, dolphins, and porpoises? One of the leading iconic “proofs” of evolution now appearing in biology textbooks is an illustration showing a land mammal morphing into a whale. These drawings are supposedly based upon fossil evidence. However, experts in the field have acknowledged they are based more on imagination and speculation. There is no compelling fossil or genetic evidence to confirm the land mammal–to–whale story. —Article by Chris Rupe and Dr. John Sanford

Did Noah live to be 950 years old? Is that even possible in light of what we now know about modern genetics? There is growing scientific evidence that the human genome is degenerating due to mutation accumulation. This is supported by papers by  several world-famous population geneticists. Genomic degeneration amounts to “evolution going backwards”, and is the anti-thesis of Darwinian thought. Remarkably, degeneration is very consistent with the Bible. This finding offers insight into the long lifespans of the pre-flood inhabitants and the declining ages of the patriarchs recorded in the Genesis genealogies.  —Article by Dr. John Sanford, Jim Pamplin, and Chris Rupe

The most famous evolution experiment of all time is widely touted as a powerful demonstration of "observable evolution" occurring right inside the flasks at Michagan State University. Twelve populations of E. coli bacteria have been growining continuously since 1988, "the equivalent of a million years of evolution in humans." If any experiment has the capability of proving large-scale evolution, it should be this one! Find out why the long-term evolution experiment ironically shows de-evolution—evolution going backwards!  —Article by Chris Rupe Dr. and John Sanford 



Salvador C. and Sanford J., Testing the Hypothesis that the Nylonase NylB Protein Arose de novo via a Frameshift Mutation. Preprints 2019, 2019050123 

Tomkins, J.P. (2018). Combinatorial genomic data refute the human chromosome 2 evolutionary fusion and build a model of functional design for interstitial telomeric repeats.


Basener, W., Sanford J. (2017). The Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection with Mutations. Journal of Mathematical Biology. Volume 76, Issue 7, pp 1589–1622.


Sanford, J., Brewer, W., Smith F., and Baumgardner, J. (2015). The Waiting Time Problem in a Model Hominin Population. Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling12:18 


Rupe, C., Sanford J. (2013). Using Numerical Simulation to Better Understand Fixation Rates, and Establishment of a New Principle: Haldane's Ratchet.


Marks R.J., Behe M.J., Dembski W.A., Gordon B.L., and Sanford J.C. (2013). Biological Information – New Perspectives. World Scientific Publishing Co., Singapore (pp 1-559).


Montañez, G.; Marks R.; Fernandez, J. & Sanford, J. (2013). Multiple overlapping genetic codes profoundly reduce the probability of beneficial mutation, In: Biological Information – New Perspectives (pp 139-167).

Sanford, J. (2013). Session II Chair - Biological Information and Genetic Theory: Introductory Comments, In: Biological Information – New Perspectives (pp 203-209).

Gibson, P.; Baumgardner, J.; Brewer, W. & Sanford, J. (2013). Can Biological Information Be Sustained By Purifying Natural Selection? In: Biological Information – New Perspectives (pp232-263).

Sanford, J.; Baumgardner, J. & Brewer, W. (2013). Selection Threshold Severely Constrains Capture of Beneficial Mutations
In: Biological Information – New Perspectives (pp 264-297).

Brewer, W.; Baumgardner, J. & Sanford, J. (2013). Using Numerical Simulation to Test the “Mutation-Count” HypothesisIn: Biological Information – New Perspectives (pp 298-311).
Baumgardner J.; Brewer, W.; Sanford, J. (2013). Can Synergistic Epistasis Halt Mutation Accumulation? Results from Numerical Simulation, In: Biological Information – New Perspectives (312-337).
Nelson, C.; & Sanford, J. (2013). Computational evolution experiments reveal a net loss of genetic information despite selectionIn: Biological Information – New Perspectives (338-368).

Brewer, W.; Smith, F. & Sanford, J. (2013). Information loss: potential for accelerating natural genetic attenuation of RNA virusesIn: Biological Information – New Perspectives (369-384).selection.


Carter R.C. & Sanford, J.C. (2012).  A new look at an old virus: patterns of mutation accumulation in the human H1N1 influenza virus since 1918. Theoretical Biology and Medical Modeling 9:42doi:10.1186/1742-4682-9-42.


Sanford, J. & Nelson, C. (2012). The Next Step in Understanding Population Dynamics: Comprehensive Numerical Simulation, Studies in Population Genetics, In: M. Carmen Fusté (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-51-0588-6, InTech.

Nelson, C.W. & Sanford, J.C. (2011). The Effects of Low-Impact Mutations in Digital Organisms. Theoretical Biology and Medical Modeling, Vol. 8, (April 2011), p. 9.

Seaman, J. and J.C. Sanford. (2009). Skittle: a two-dimensional genome visualization tool. BMC Bioinformatics 10:452.

Sanford, J.C., Baumgardner, J., Gibson, P., Brewer, W., ReMine, W. (2007). Mendel's Accountant: a biologically realistic forward-time population genetics program. SCPE 8(2):147-165.

Sanford, J.C., Baumgardner, J., Gibson, P., Brewer, W., ReMine, W. (2007). Using computer simulation to understand mutation accumulation dynamics and genetic load. In Shi et al. (Eds.), ICCS 2007, Part II, LNCS 4488 (pp.386-392), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg.

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